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两个中国艺术家的黑色方块冒险

作者:邱文宝 /Voon Pow Bartlett  2015/10/22    来源:artspy艺术眼


哲学精神与理解感知的表述结合在中国文化里面自古有之。它存在于园艺和书法中,为中国艺术打下基础。吴冠中描述为“抽象的美,无对象,只有形式。”37这与乌托邦的探寻和中国梦里渴求的理想主义产生了共鸣。根据网上的中文字典Chindict乌托邦的中文翻译是世外桃花源。也有不同的版本,例如“长生不老蟠桃园”,“梦中富足之乡”和“香格里拉”。抽象艺术给中国艺术家提供了一个有趣的平台,来寻求他们的中国梦和继续未完成的革命。它让艺术家从艺术的资产阶级狂热中解放出来,虽然讽刺的是却把他们变成了艺术制度化的奴隶。


抽象艺术自身邀请一种乌托邦的审视,据策展人布雷兹维克说“抽象艺术的漂浮、空间感的动态让它和乌托邦的‘无所在’相似。”38它允许了对美丽新世界的反乌托邦式的戏仿。在1983年的清除精神污染的运动中,中国政府视抽象艺术的“无所在”为残留的资产阶级腐朽思想。39


赵要和刘韡黑色方块的冒险中的作品展现出了中国艺术家的洞察力。他们不是模仿者而是拥有马列维奇式的勇气、创造性,适应性地作为去探寻抽象艺术智力潜能的艺术家,与国际观众沟通和审视意义。我乐于见到这种潜力的包容性,不只是对于国际平台和市场而言,更被看着是一个从本地视角构建意义的沟通空间。在最终的分析中,在这个加速困惑的时代——憎恶、矛盾、怀旧混合着遗忘。审查和自我审查,如果不是从传统、偏见、官场而来;便是从不久之前的创伤而来。抽象艺术表现出使一切成为可能,以及让人们更好地掌控信息的能力。机械美学容纳能动性,也同样具备反话题的潜力。这像策展人布雷兹维克所说,让艺术家堕落至“言听计从的服从者或流水线上的机器人”。40更乐观地说,我愿意这能引向新的全球关系。我指的是艺术与它所在地和全球社会环境的互动下中国备受崇敬的,古已有之的社会价值“关系”而形成一个完整的圆。


原文载于: Yishu典藏国际版July/August 2015, volume 14, number 4. P28-43.


参考文献

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Laura Cumming, “Art That Aimed to Change the World,” The Guardian, January 18, 2015. http://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2015/jan/18/adventures-of-the-black-square-review-whitechapel-abstract-art-that-aimed-to-change-the-world/.

5. Cumming, “Adventures of the Black Square.”

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7. Catalogue entry for Zhao Yao in Adventures of the Black Square, 276.

8. Iwona Blazwick, “Utopia”, Adventures of the Black Square, ed. Iwona Blazwick (London: Whitechapel Gallery and Prestel Publishing, 2015), 17. Blazwick quotes art historian Benjamin Buchloh’s description of what abstraction was able to offer in the aftermath of the Second World War in Europe.

9. Michael Sullivan, “Orthodoxy and Individualism in Twentieth-Century Chinese Art”, Artists and Traditions (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1976), 202. “The ban in China since 1949 on abstract expressionism, op art, kinetic art, minimal art etc., was not instituted on stylistic grounds. For example, theorists have said that China has no need of abstraction not on formalistic grounds but that abstraction was related to decadent capitalist culture but because China ‘already has, in calligraphy, a highly abstract art of her own’.”

10. Cumming quoting Kasimir Malevich, “Adventures of the Black Square review.”

11. The Chinese dream is popularly associated with Xi Jinping; it was his party slogan during his visit to the National Musem of China in November 2012 and frequently appears in the press.

12. Iwona Blazwick, “Utopia”, Adventures of the Black Square, ed. Iwona Blazwick (London: Whitechapel Gallery and Prestel Publishing, 2015), 15. Blazwick quotes critic and art historian Meyer Schapiro, art historian.

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14. Zhao Yao, in conversation with the author, May 31, 2013.

15. Wu Hung, Chinese Art at the Crossroads (London: New Arts Media Ltd., 2001), 206.

16. “China’s Unfinished Revolution” is the title of a talk given by Jonathan Fenby on April 30, 2013, that the author attended, at King’s College, London. The speaker assessed the challenges facing China today and considered what the next generation of leaders will need to do to continue the revolution set in motion by Deng Xioaping. “But the basic line remains as it was with Deng Xiaoping in 1978 to keep the red flag flying and to ensure that politics runs the world’s second biggest economy,” he said. Transcription of talk by Jonathan Fenby. http://www.chathamhouse.org/publications/papers/view/183657#sthash.bLSDNH2g.dpuf/.

17. Robert Hughes, “Mechanical Paradise,” in The Shock of the New (Thames and Hudson, London, 1992), 9.

18. English translation by the author of an interview with the artist (31.5.2013), in which he said, “我把我最近的创作作比作电视剧.”

19. http://www.whitechapelgallery.org/about/press/adventures-black-square-abstract-art-society-1915-2015/.

20. Iwona Blazwick, “Utopia”, in Adventures of the Black Square, ed. Iwona Blazwick (London: Whitechapel Gallery and Prestel Publishing, 2015), 15.

21. As Adrian Searle puts it, “Malevich’s Black Square was made by a human, not a machine. Other artists in Adventures of the Black Square, the new exhibition at the Whitechapel, might draw straighter lines, disguise their touch and achieve more accurate geometries, but it doesn’t make them better.” See Adrian Searle, “Planet of the shapes: how art and society were driven to abstraction,” Guardian, January 14, 2015, http://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2015/jan/14/abstract-art-adventures-of-the-black-square-whitechapel-review-planet-of-the-shapes/. “Malevich’s legacy and its “hard-edged blackness” has become metaphorical. Time has taken its toll but has graced it with a beauty that even he might not have imagined. The black edges seemed to have liquefied into the white background, and the white background has developed a delicious buttery shade, making the whole painting shimmer.”

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26. Henry Geldzahler, New York Painting and Sculpture: 1940–1970 (New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Modern Art, 1969), http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abstract_art#cite.

27. Iwona Blazwick, “Utopia”, Adventures of the Black Square, ed. Iwona Blazwick (London: Whitechapel Gallery and Prestel Publishing, 2015), 16.

28. Maks Karpovets, “Kazimir Malevich: the Ukrainian roots of his avant-garde art,” 27 December 2011 - 00:0, Time Out, no. 76, 2011 (this link can be found on  http://www.day.kiev.ua/en/arhiv/no76-2011).

http://www.day.kiev.ua/en/article/time-out/kazimir-malevich-ukrainian-roots-his-avant-garde-art, 1.6.15. According to the article, Malevich’s Black Square presented a challenge to common sense and morals. “For Petersburg (sic) public, the avant-garde exhibit was a challenge to common sense and morals. The audience felt fooled, seeing the primitivism and vulgarity of the canvases which were an overt mockery of the visitors’ intellectual abilities.”

29. Iwona Blazwick, “Utopia”, in Adventures of the Black Square, Ed. Iwona Blazwick (London: Whitechapel Gallery and Prestel Publishing, 2015), 18. Blazwick quotes Angeline Morrison.

30. Geremie R. Barmé, In The Red (New York: Columbia University Press, 2000), 104, n14, 413. According to Barmé, ‘National Nihilism’, 民族虚无主义minzhu xuwu zhuyi, has become one of China’s bugbears, a form of cultural treason.

31. Nietzsche’s idea of nihilism is often misunderstood as agnostic and suggesting an abyss of nothingness. Many scholars believe that he was actually an affirmative thinker, one who endorsed moral values and our capacity to create our own moral compass. He also saw in humanity the potential to overcome the malaise of modernity in late nineteenth-century Europe. http://historynewsnetwork.org/article/135404/ and Wayne Klein, “Nietzsche and the promise of philosophy” (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1997), 34.

https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=5mUIBCGhpkUC&pg=PA33&lpg=PA33&dq=misunderstanding+nietzsche&source=bl&ots=S7bKOKFtQd&sig=1Wf9w2AOdNgwJKt7MZQjkjwXwDA&hl=en&sa=X&ei=JGBsVbj7BYKlsgGSvreACQ&ved=0CDYQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=misunderstanding%20nietzsche&f=false, accessed 1.6.15.

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http://www.mdbg.net/chindict/chindict.php?page=worddict&wdrst=0&wdqb=utopia/.

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37. As quoted in Gao Minglu, Total Modernity, 81.

38. Iwona Blazwick, “Utopia”, in Adventures of the Black Square, ed. Iwona Blazwick (London: Whitechapel Gallery and Prestel Publishing, 2015), 16.

39. Gao Minglu, Total Modernity, 80.

40. Iwona Blazwick, “Utopia”, in Adventures of the Black Square, ed. Iwona Blazwick (London: Whitechapel Gallery and Prestel Publishing, 2015), 16.

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